Social capital and religiosity in Russia: Analysis from the “donor” and “recipient” perspective
The article discusses the dynamics of various indicators of social capital in Russia and the relationship of social capital with religiosity and socio-demographic factors. The analysis is based on national representative surveys “Orthodox Monitor” (1500 respondents, 2011) and “Religion and Church” (1549 respondents, December 2020). We define social capital as involvement in social support networks. We differentiate between several types of resources, and distinguish the position of “the donor” and “the recipient” (Забаев, Орешина, Пруцкова, 2014). Indicators of social capital from the “recipient” include the size and composition of the social support network. Compared to 2011, the structure and size of the social support networks in 2020 turned out to be quite stable. The types of resources are evaluated via a modified “Resource Generator” method, which includes 18 different resources that can be combined into four broad categories: personal support, personal skills, prestige and education related resources, and financial skills / employment opportunities. Indicators of social capital from the “donor” perspective include the provision of household assistance, material assistance, and moral support. Compared to 2011, Russians have become more likely to act as “donors” of social capital in all three domains. There is also a significant decrease in the proportion of “hard to answer” option in all items. The COVID-19 pandemic has sharply raised the issue of inclusion in social support networks, both from the “donor” and the “recipient” perspective. Even if people were not included in the provision of care and did not receive help from others, at least they began to think about it, and this topic turned out to be more relevant for people in 2020. In the “Religion and Church” survey, religiosity was measured via a modified “Centrality of Religiosity Scale” proposed by S. Huber. Linear regression models show a significant relationship of various indicators of social capital with the intellectual dimension and the social component of religiosity. Among socio-demographic indicators, age, financial situation and having a paid work play a significant role in the formation of social capital.