Social changes and prestige of the profession of an engineer in modern Russian society
The world is undergoing fundamental changes due to globalization and the scientific and technological revolution (STR-4). Accordingly, there are changes in the social structure of society. The article analyzes the impact of social changes on the prestige of the engineering profession, explores the motives of choosing an engineering profession, its prestige in the students' view. There is a lack of qualified engineering personnel today. And this is one of the most relevant problems in the modern Russian economy, which is in the process of transition to an innovative way of development. It is shown on the example of a survey of students of engineering universities, that this profession is in demand in the labor market, and it has good employment prospects. As a motive for choosing the profession of an engineer, students prefer the material component of the profession, the ability to perform complex work. Among the motives for choosing a profession students also note the indicators of the status of the profession. It is shown that belonging to a professional dynasty is one of the factors in the assessment of their prospects by students and one of the resources for the formation of such a professional group as engineers. At the same time, the prestige of the profession does not attract students. It is concluded that the social changes associated with the formation of market relations in Russia, the processes of globalization, have had a negative impact on the prestige of the engineering profession due to changes in the social structure of society. To increase the prestige of this profession, some measures are needed to significantly affect the current social stratification, including the transition to a more equitable redistribution of income. As other measures, it is proposed to improve the quality of higher engineering education. Professional standards will play an increasingly important role in improving the quality of education. They include not only professional skills, but also social responsibility, i.e. the willingness to be responsible for the social, cultural and environmental consequences of integrated engineering activities. Such factor as dynasties, i.e. the inheritance of social and professional status can also contribute to the fact that the profession of an engineer is considered prestigious by a greater number of future specialists.